亚博yb(Law)

法學(jurisprudence,legal theory),又稱亚博yb學、亚博yb科學,是社會科學中跨學科的文科專業,涉及亚博yb和合法性的含義、價值、實踐和機構。研究亚博yb如何形成和被政治、經濟和文化力量所塑造。

優譯堂亚博atus在法學領域具有深厚的專業知識,擁有法學和相關學科,如憲法學、刑事法學、犯罪學、公司法、國際公法等相關學科的學科專業翻譯師、雙語校對以及英語母語學科專家編輯,且已翻譯了大量此領域相關的論文,並協助諸多學術作者成功在國際知名SCI/EI/SSCI期刊上發表高水準論文。

  • 原始文稿
  • 翻譯後的檔案
  • 雙語核對後的檔案
  • 編修後的檔案
  • 完稿

在巴西,專利申請程式是通過向國家工業產權機構(葡萄牙語縮寫:INPI)提交申請表的,而當中必須至少有一份申請表格、說明草稿、保護範圍、摘要以及支付申請費的證明。如果沒有符合這些要求,INPI 將有審查員發出有關正式申請的通知。申請人必須在 30 天內回覆。若無回應,申請將被視為無效並被撤銷。

根據巴西的知識產權法規,被提交的專利申請自申請之日起 18 個月後可在未經審查專利申請的刊物中公佈。然而,由於INPI 擁有大量的專利申請,已提交的專利申請通常在大約 2—3 年後方可發表。在未經審查的專利申請發表之日起至審查結束之日,任何第三方及申請人均可提交意見以協助審查。

申請人須於申請日期起計 36 個月內提交審查申請的要求。若未能於 36 個月內提交審查申請的要求,申請將被撤銷。然而,申請人可於撤銷日期起計 60 天內繳付預定費用,以恢復已撤回的申請。如申請人未能遵守此時限,申請將被確認為撤銷。

此外,申請人可在提交審查要求時,對申請書的說明草稿和保護範圍提交修訂,以澄清或界定已提交的申請內容。然而,任何修訂都應限於對於首次提交申請時所披露之內容的修訂。在提交審查要求後——無論是申請人的自發決定或通過審查官的通知——任何可能會改變或擴大申請的保護範圍的修改都不能被接受。從這個意義上說,只有限制被保護的主題的修正案才可被接受。

在審查期間,兩種正式通知書會被發出,即是考官的通知及拒絕原因的非最終通知書。申請人必須在未經審查專利申請的發佈日期的 90 天內回覆這些通知。

簡單來說,審查官的通知一般包括正式要求,例如違反了對於清晰度或支持的要求。對於拒絕原因的非最終通知書,申請可能被拒絕。這通常是由於違反了專利性的要求,如缺乏新穎性和創新性。可發出的官方通知數量不設上限。INPI 會在未經審查專利申請的刊物中宣佈授予或拒絕專利的決定,從而結束審查過程。

翻譯: 您學科領域的翻譯師翻譯您的原稿

The procedure for a patent application in Brazil is initiated by filing an application form with INPI, in which at least an application form, draft of descriptions, scope of claims, abstract and proof of payment of the application fee must be submitted. Failure to fulfill these requirements will cause INPI to issue a notification by an examiner in relation to formality, to which the applicant must respond within 30 days. If the applicant fails to respond to the notification, it will be deemed withdrawal.

According to the IP Code in Brazil, a filed patent application is publicized in the publication of unexamined patent applications after 18 months from the date of application. However, with a consideration of a high volume of the backlog retained in INPI, a filed patent application is typically publicized after approximately two to three years from the date of application. During the period from the date of the publication of unexamined patent applications until the end of examination, any third party and the applicant (for the purpose of assisting the examination) are allowed to submit their opinions.

An applicant is required to file a request for examination of the application within 36 months from the date of application. Failure to file a request for examination within 36 months will be deemed withdrawal of the application. However, an applicant is allowed to recover the withdrawn application by paying a predetermined fee within 60 days from the date of the withdrawal. Even so, if an applicant still fails to comply with the time limit, the application will be confirmed withdrawn. According to the IP Code in Brazil, an applicant is given an opportunity to submit amendments to the draft of descriptions and scope of claims by the time when the applicant files a request for examination, in order to clarify or define the contents of filed application. However, any amendment should be restricted to the amendment of the contents first disclosed at the time of filing an application. After a request for examination has been filed, any amendment, either by an applicant’s spontaneous decision or by a notification by an examiner, is not acceptable if the amendment could change or expand the claimed scope of protection. In this sense, the only amendment limiting claimed subject matter may possibly be accepted.

During the period of examination, two types of official notifications, i.e. notification by an examiner and non-final notification of reasons for refusal will be issued. The applicant is required to respond to these notifications within 90 days from the date of publication of unexamined patent applications.

To put it simply, notifications by an examiner are generally composed of formality requirements such as a violation of requirements of clarity or a violation of support requirements. In a case of a non-final notification of reasons for refusal, an application may be rejected typically due to a violation of the requirements of patentability such as lack of novely and inventive step. No limit is stipulated in the number of issuable official notifications. INPI announces its decision to grant or refuse a patent in the publication of unexamined patent applications thus ending the process of examination.

雙語核對:雙語核對師依照原文檢查譯文是否正確,並修正錯誤

 The procedure for a patent application in Brazil is initiated by filing an application form with National Institute of Industrial Property (Portugese abbreviation:1INPI), in which at least an application form, draft of descriptions, scope of claims, abstract and proof of payment of the application fee must be submitted. Failure to fulfill these requirements will cause INPI to issue a notification by an examiner in relation to formality, to which the applicant must respond within 30 days. If the applicant fails to respond to the notification, it the application 2will be deemed withdrawlwithdrawn3.

According to the IP Code in Brazil, a filed patent application is may be publicized in the publication of unexamined patent applications after 18 months from the date of application. However, with a consideration of a high volume of the backlog of patent applications retained in by the 4INPI, a filed patent application is typically publicized after approximately two to three years from the date of application. During the period from the date of the publication of unexamined patent applications until the end of examination, any third party and the applicant (for the purpose of assisting the examination) are allowed to submit their opinions.

An applicant is required to file a request for examination of the application within 36 months from the date of application. Failure to file a request for examination within 36 months will be deemed withdrawal of the application. However, an applicant is allowed to recover the withdrawn application by paying a predetermined fee within 60 days from of the date of the withdrawal. Even so,5 Iif an applicant still fails to comply with the time limit, the application will be confirmed as withdrawn.

 According to the IP Code in Brazil, an applicant is given an opportunity to submit amendments to the draft of descriptions and scope of claims by the time when the applicant files a request for examination, in order to clarify or define the contents of filed application. However, any amendment should be restricted to the amendment of the contents first disclosed at the time of filing an application. After a request for examination has been filed, any amendment, either by an applicant’s spontaneous decision or by a notification by an examiner, is not acceptable if the amendment could change or expand the claimed scope of protection. In this sense, the only amendment6s limiting claimed subject matter may possibly 7be accepted.

During the period of examination, two types of official notifications, i.e. notification by an examiner and non-final notification of reasons for refusal will be issued. The applicant is required to respond to these notifications within 90 days from the date of publication of unexamined patent applications.

To put it simply, notifications by an examiner are generally composed of formality8 requirements such as a violation of requirements of clarity or a violation of support requirements. In a case of a non-final notification of reasons for refusal, an application may be rejected typically due to a violation of the requirements of patentability such as lack of novelty9 and inventive stepinvention. No limit is stipulated in the number of issuable official notifications. INPI announces its decision to grant or refuse a patent in the publication of unexamined patent applications thus ending the process of examination.

  1. [漏譯]完整未縮略的術語在譯文中被漏譯。
  2. [語義變化/誤譯][明確性]為維持準確和明確重新使用主語。
  3. [可讀性]為保持可讀性,採用了正確的術語形式。
  4. [準確][漏譯]補充缺失的表述,並根據原文改寫來保持準確性。
  5. [清晰度]為清楚起見,根據原文刪除了不必要的表述。
  6. [準確度]遵照原文改為複數。
  7. [贅詞]刪除贅詞避免重複。
  8. [術語/詞彙選擇]為了專業的準確性而改寫。
  9. [拼寫錯誤]更正拼寫錯誤使之更準確。

編修:英文母語編修師改善文章整體的流暢度與呈現方式

In Brazil, 1Tthe procedure for a patent application in Brazil is initiated by filing an application form with National Institute of Industrial Property (Portugese abbreviation:2INPI), in whichinvolving the submission of at least an application form, draft of descriptions, scope of claims, abstract and proof of payment of the application fee must be submitted. Failure to fulfill payment. If these requirements will causeare not fulfilled, INPI to issueissues a notification by an examiner in relation to formality, to which, the applicant must respond to this within 30 days. If the applicant failsFaliure 3to respond to the notification leads to, it the application 4will bebeing deemed invalid and withdrawlwithdrawn5.

According to the Brazilian IP Code in Brazil, a filed patent application is may be publicized in the publication of unexamined patent applications after 18 months from the date of application date. However, with a consideration of aconsidering the high volume of the backlog of patent applications retained in by the INPI6, a filed patent application is7, this typically publicized aftertakes approximately two to three2-3 years from the date of application. During the period from the date of the publication date of the unexamined patent applications until the end of examination, any third party and the applicant (may submit their opinions for the purpose of assisting the examination) are allowed to submit their opinions. 8

An applicant is required tomust file a request for examination of the application within 36 months from the date of application. Failure to file a request for examination within 36 months date; otherwise, the application will be deemed withdrawal of the applicationwithdrawn. However, an applicant is allowed tocan recover the withdrawn application by paying a predetermined fee within 60 days from of the withdrawal date. If date of the withdrawal. Even so,9 Iif an applicant still fails to comply with thethis time limit as well, the application will be confirmed as withdrawn.

 According to the IP Code in Brazil 10Furthermore, an applicant is given an opportunitymay be allowed to submit amendments to the draft of descriptions and scope of claims by the time when the applicant he/she files a request for examination, in order to clarify. This enables clarification or define refining of the contents of filed application. HoweverNevertheless, any amendment should be restricted to the amendment of the contents first disclosed at the time of filing an application. After a request for an examination request has been filed, any amendment, either by an applicant’s spontaneous decision or by aan examiner’s notification by an examiner, is not acceptableunacceptable if the amendment could change or expand the claimed scope of protection. In this sense, the only amendments11 limiting claimed the 12subject matter may possibly 13be accepted.

During the period of examination period, two types of official notifications will be issued, i.e., notification by an examiner and non-final notification of reasons for refusal will be issued. The applicant is required tomust respond to these notifications within 90 days from the date of publication date of unexamined patent applications.

To put it simply, In simple terms, an examiner’s notifications by an examiner are generally composed ofcomprise formality14 requirements such as a violation of requirements of clarity or a violation of support requirements. In a case of a non-final notification of reasons for refusal, an application may be rejected. This typically due to a violation ofoccurs if the requirements of patentability, such as lack of novelty 15and inventive stepinvention, are violated. No limit is stipulated in the number of issuable official notifications. INPI announces its decision to grant or refuse a patent in the publication of unexamined patent applications thusthereby ending the process of 16examination process.

  1. [可讀性]調整句子結構使之更容易閱讀。
  2. [漏譯]完整未縮略的術語在譯文中被漏譯。
  3. [清晰度和可讀性]改寫句子以提高清晰度和可讀性。
  4. [語義變化/誤譯][明確性]為維持準確和明確重新使用主語。
  5. [可讀性]為保持可讀性,採用了正確的術語形式。
  6. [準確][漏譯]補充缺失的表述,並根據原文改寫來保持準確性。
  7. [贅詞]為避免重複和糾結而刪減。
  8. [行文流暢]刪除括號以強調關鍵短語。
  9. [清晰度]為清楚起見,根據原文刪除了不必要的表述。
  10. [用字遣詞]改寫文句以改善語言使用問題。
  11. [準確度]遵照原文改為複數。
  12. [語法]添加冠詞以維持語法的正確性。
  13. [贅詞]刪除贅詞避免重複。
  14. [術語/詞彙選擇]為了專業的準確性而改寫。
  15. [拼寫錯誤]更正拼寫錯誤使之更準確。
  16. [用字遣詞]為改進詞語精確性並提高可讀性而改寫。

完稿:翻譯完成品準時遞交給客戶

In Brazil, the procedure for a patent application is initiated by filing an application form with National Institute of Industrial Property (Portuguese abbreviation:INPI), involving the submission of at least an application form, draft of descriptions, scope of claims, abstract and proof of the application fee payment. If these requirements are not fulfilled, INPI issues a notification by an examiner in relation to formality; the applicant must respond to this within 30 days. Failure to respond to the notification leads to , the application being deemed invalid and withdrawn.

According to the Brazilian IP Code, a filed patent application may be publicized in the publication of unexamined patent applications after 18 months from the application date. However, considering the high volume of the backlog of patent applications retained by the INPI, this typically takes approximately 2-3 years. During the period from the publication date of the unexamined patent applications until the end of examination, any third party and the applicant may submit their opinions for assisting the examination. An applicant must file a request for examination of the application within 36 months from the application date; otherwise, the application will be withdrawn. However, an applicant can recover the withdrawn application by paying a predetermined fee within 60 days of the withdrawal date. If the applicant fails to comply with this time limit as well, the application will be confirmed as withdrawn.

Furthermore, an applicant may be allowed to submit amendments to the draft of descriptions and scope of claims by the time he/she files a request for examination. This enables clarification or refining of the contents of filed application. Nevertheless, any amendment should be restricted to the amendment of the contents first disclosed at the time of filing an application. After an examination request has been filed, any amendment, either by an applicant’s spontaneous decision or by an examiner’s notification, is unacceptable if the amendment could change or expand the claimed scope of protection. In this sense, only amendments limiting claimed the subject matter might be accepted.

During the examination period, two types of official notifications will be issued, i.e., notification by an examiner and non-final notification of reasons for refusal. The applicant must respond to these notifications within 90 days from the publication date of unexamined patent applications.

In simple terms, an examiner’s notifications generally comprise formal requirements such as a violation of requirements of clarity or a violation of support requirements. In a case of a non-final notification of reasons for refusal, an application may be rejected. This typically occurs if the requirements of patentability, such as lack of novelty and invention, are violated. No limit is stipulated in the number of issuable official notifications. INPI announces its decision to grant or refuse a patent in the publication of unexamined patent applications, thereby ending the examination process.